#### Material

Two wooden slatted boards, each divided into five sections like the Teen Boards but marked with numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 in black, and last partition is empty.

A set of wooden cards 1 to 9, which fit into each section of the board.

A small box with 9 golden ten bars.

A small box with 10 loose units.

#### Presentation

##### Names of the Tens

- Invite the child to the lesson.
- Ask the child to unroll a rug.
- Show him the box of ten beads and the box of tens boards.
- Ask him to bring them to a rug.
- Ask the child to place the tens boards just like we did with the teens boards.
- “Can you place just the tens bars on the rug?”
- Once all the ten-bars are placed vertically, place a ten-bar on the left of the first row.
- “Ten. One ten is just ten.”
- Place another ten-bar adjacent to the other ten-bar.
- Slide the 2 ten-bars down together, so they are aligned with the next row on the board.
- “Two tens is twenty. Can you say that? Yes, twenty.”
- Place another ten-bar adjacent to the other ten-bars.
- Slide all three ten-bars down together, so they are aligned with the next row on the board.
- Three tens is thirty. Can you say that? Yes, thirty.”
- Repeat this process until forty or fifty, then the child should be secure enough, hand it off to the child.
- Once you hand it off to the child, stay with the child as your knowledge is necessary to say the names such as forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eight, ninety, which the child doesn’t know yet.
- After the numbers 10 through 90 have been completed in this way, ask the child to move all the ten-bars back up to the top of the rug.
- “Let’s play a game.”
- Perform a three period lesson; ask a child to make a number such as 60 using the ten-bars and ask him to place them next to 60 on the boards. Make a random number with the ten-bars, place them next to their proper row, ask him what the number is.
- After a few days, once the child knows all the numbers and they’ve all been reviewed, ask the child to read the numbers backwards from 90 to 10.

##### Passing from one Ten to the Next

- Invite the child to the lesson.
- Ask him to lay the beads and boards on the rug the same as before.
- Take out a unit bead and place it in a new column to the right of the ten-bars.
- Place another unit bead below the previous one, then another.
- Ask the child to finish placing the rest in the column.
- Ask the child to place the number cards randomly in a column on the right side of the rug.
- Very slowly and methodically, pick up the cards one at a time and put them in order, one under the other, with 1 on top, 2 under one, 3 under two, and so on until 9 is at the bottom.
- Place a ten-bar next to the row on the board that says 10.
- Add a unit bead to the right of the ten-bar, adjacent.
- “Eleven.”
- Pick up the number card labeled 1, which is at the top of the stack.
- Slide the card into the board from the right side.
- Repeat, “Eleven.”
- Add a second unit bead below the other unit bead.
- “Twelve.”
- Slide the 1 card out of the row and place it face down on the rug.
- Pick up the number card labeled 2.
- Slide the card into the board from the right side.
- Repeat, “Twelve.”
- Add a third unit bead below the other unit bead.
- “Thirteen.”
- Slide the 2 card out of the row and place it face down on the previous card.
- Pick up the number card labeled 3.
- Slide the card into the board from the right side.
- Repeat, “Thirteen.”
- Hand it off to the child, and stay with the child, to continue this process until 19.
- Once the child reaches 19, say:

“Let me show you what happens next.” - Add a tenth unit bead below the other unit bead.
- “What do we do here with all these unit beads? Right, we can exchange them!”
- Exchange the unit beads for a ten-bar.
- Slide the two ten-bars down to the next row.
- “Two tens is twenty. After 19, is 20.
- Take the 9 out of the row and place it face down in the stack of cards.
- Flip the stack of cards over so one is on the top again.
- Repeat the same process as before for 21 and 22, to reinforce the process, as the transition could have been confusing, then hand it off to the child as you stay with him.
- Once the child gets to 29, watch to see if he remembers how to go to 30 and how to make an exchange and how to continue the process.
- If the child is secure in this knowledge, let him know that he can come get you for help if he needs it.

#### Exercises

Child works independently.

#### Purpose

To learn the traditional names of the tens from 10 to 90, such as 3 tens is the same as thirty.

To realize how the numbers progress from one 10 to the next; as in 19 to 20, 29 to 30, 39 to 40, etc.

#### Control of Error

The child’s knowledge.

#### Age

4 1/2

#### Notes

The crux of this work is progressing from 19 to 20, 29 to 30, and so forth. This is one of the largest benefits of the tens boards and beads as it shows that progress.

Be exciting and encouraging with this work because it can very exhausting; it is a tedious exercise that needs your energy, be prepared for the possibility of coming in to take a short turn that will inspire the child to keep going.

If the child is absolutely out of energy, you can write the number which he stopped at, and continue the next day.

The stack is not essential, the numbers can be in sequence on the right of the rug in a column if preferred that way.

The child works independently with the first presentation many times before moving onto the next presentation.