#### Material

A compartment box with plentiful assortment of bead bars 1 to 10.

A felt mat color-coded yellow, or black (or a floor mat or rug).

Paper and pencil (for exercise 2).

#### Presentation

##### Presentation and Exercise 1

- Invite the child to the lesson.
- Introduce the multiplication bead bar box and its corresponding underlay.
- Ask the child to bring the materials to a table.
- Roll out the underlay and place the lid underneath the box.
- Review the bead bars with the child by asking him to find random numbers such as:

“Can you find 3? Right. What about 7? Okay, and 9?” - Choose a number to use for multiplication, such as seven.
- Place a 7 bar horizontally at the far left of the rug:

“How much is seven taken one time? Right, just seven!” - Place a 7 bar vertically, right below the horizontal 7 bar.
- Place two 7 bars horizontally to the right of the first 7 bar:

“How much is seven taken two times? Let’s find out!” - Use the counter to count the 7 bars, left to right.
- Stop when you count to ten, leave the counter in its place.
- Place a golden 10 bar vertically, below the horizontal 7 bars.
- Keep counting the bar from where you left off:

“1, 2, 3, 4.” - Place a 4 bar vertically, right next to the golden 10 bar.
- “How much is seven taken two times?”
- Count “1, 2, 3, 4, 5…14!”
- “Seven take two times is fourteen!”
- Let the child continue multiplying seven through this same process, all the way up to seven times nine.
- Once the child finishes, randomly ask what the multiples got, such as

“What does seven times three get you?” - On another day, let the child repeat this process with a different number.

##### Recurrence of the Zero

- Invite the child to the lesson.
- “I have something new to show you!”
- Ask the child to bring the multiplication bead bar box and underlay to a table.
- Bring two papers, pencils and underlays on a tray.
- Take a 2 bar out of the box.
- Write a 2 in the first box of the paper.
- “Let’s take this out ten times!”
- Count a total of ten 2 bars.
- Place the bars horizontally in a column on the left.
- With the counter, count the beads, stop once you reach ten, leave the counter in its place.
- Place a 10 bar vertically below the column.
- Continue counting from where you left off:

“1, 2, 3…10.” - Place another 10 bar next to the other 10 bar.
- “Twenty!”
- With the child’s attention, dramatically move your pencil to the paper and write a 0 after the 2.
- “Look! All I had to do was add a zero!”
- Repeat this process for 3; 3 taken 10 times.
- Hand it off to the child, but stay with the child as he works with numbers 4 through 9, all taken 10 times.
- Once the child finishes up 9, taking it 10 times, say:

“Wow! All these numbers taken 10 times, just needed a zero at the end!”

##### Ways to Make a Number

- Invite the child to the lesson.
- Ask the child to bring the multiplication bead bar box and underlay to a table.
- “Let’s make twelve in different ways!”
- Place a 10 bar and a 2 bar vertically on the underlay.
- “There is twelve! Now, let’s make twelve with just 2 bars!”
- Place a 2 bar horizontally on the underlay and count:

“1, 2.” - Place another 2 bar horizontally under the previous one, count:

“3, 4.” - Repeat this process until you’ve counted to twelve.
- “Oh, two taken six times, is twelve!”
- Repeat this process, making twelve using the three bars.
- Hand it off to the child to do the 4 bars.
- When the child arrives at the 5 bars, let him discover you can not make twelve with 5 bars.
- “Oh, you are right, that is too much! We can’t make twelve with fives! We can put the 5 bars back in the box.”
- Let the child keep trying to make twelve with 6 through 9.
- Once all the beads are out on the underlay, compare the combinations.
- Place the two 6 bars vertically next to the 2 bars.
- “Look, they look the same! I bet you could fit them on top of each other!”
- “Two taken six times, and six taken two times, are really the same thing!”
- Compare the four 3 bars and the three 4 bars in the same way.

#### Exercises

Child works independently.

#### Direct Purpose

Memorization of the multiplication tables.

To reinforce the concept of multiplication.

To reinforce the idea that the multiplier is not a quantity, but rather the numbers of times a quantity must be taken.

#### Indirect Purpose

Preparation for division.

Show the geometrical form of multiplication.

Showing that a line moving in space makes a surface.

Preparation for working with factors.

#### Control of Error

Control for subtraction chart 1 is subtraction chart 1.

Control for subtraction chart 3 is subtraction chart 2.

#### Age

5 1/2 to 6